Phuket Town Police Superintendent Lt Col Sermpan Sirikong said the shooting took place just before midnight.
Chalong (Boat) Natpetchdang, 19, was driving his motorbike along the road with a friend on the back when another bike with no license plate drew level with them with two people on board, one of whom shot Boat once before they sped away.
Boat was rushed to Vachira Phuket Hospital where he later died from the gunshot wound.
Col Sermpan said investigators are looking at all CCTV cameras on that road. They believe the shooters may have been from a local gang.
A friend of Boat said he could not understand why Boat had been shot. “He had no enemies and rarely went out. He just moved to Phuket a year ago,” he said.